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How Much Does It Cost To Be a Dog Breeder?

↯ Key takeaway points

  • Breeding dogs can be profitable but comes with expenses.
  • Breeding expenses include prenatal, birth, and postnatal care of puppies, health clearances, brucellosis testing, stud-service fee, progesterone tests, and ultrasound and x-ray.
  • Litter-related expenses include whelping box, whelping kit, deworming, DHLPP shots, puppy food, medical for puppies with health problems, C-section, euthanasia, and AKC registration of the litter.
  • Yearly expenses for running a kennel include dog food, vet visits, annual licenses, cleaning supplies, stud service fees, and building maintenance.
  • Commercial breeders become profitable by breeding multiple female dogs over several years and building their reputation.
Breeding Business is passionate about all sorts of domesticated pets. They have written dozens of articles across the web.
Practicing small pets and equine veterinarian and junior teaching assistant in Veterinary Medicine.
Published on
Saturday 7 October 2017
Last updated on
Monday 6 November 2023
How Much Does It Cost To Be a Dog Breeder?
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Breeding dogs can be a profitable enterprise. The expenses of whelping a litter of puppies for sale can be substantial, though. The average cost of breeding a litter of puppies is set out below. These expenses reflect costs in 2018 and are typical for a breeder located in the mid-section of the United States.

Summary Expenses of Dog Breeding

Before somebody gets involved with breeding dogs, they tend to do their research in order to assess a rough estimate of how much does running a kennel cost. Indeed, dog breeding and being a dog breeder comes with a price. Now, not everybody runs their kennel the same way, some people can afford huge expenditures while other ones are more frugal.

Remember, breeding dogs means that you are committed to the breed in the long run. Whether dog breeding is profitable or not depends on how you run your kennel and how much reputation you have built. There is money in dog breeding for those who reach excellence.

A table listing the main expenses linked to breeding dogs and running a kennel.
Yearly Expenses Low Cost Regular Cost High Cost
Dam’s dog food $100 $200 $400
Dam’s supplements $25 $75 $200
Mandatory licenses $30 $30 $200
Breeding-Related Expenses Low Cost Regular Cost High Cost
Prenatal, birth, and postnatal care of puppies (inc. 4 office visits) $150 $250 $600
Health clearance $100 $150 $ 300
Brucellosis testing $100 $100 $100
Stud-service fee $100 $500 $1,500
Progesterone tests $100 $100 $300
Ultrasound and X-ray $40 $55 $100
Litter-Related Expenses Low Cost Regular Cost High Cost
Whelping box $30 $150 $600
Whelping kit $50 $120 $250
Deworming (for a litter of 2, 5 or 10+) $15 $35 $100
DHLPP shots (for a litter of 2, 5 or 10+) $150 $300 $600
Puppy food and miscellaneous supplies for puppies (e.g. collars) $40 $100 $200
Medical for a puppy with special health problems $150 $400 $1,500
C-Section $350 $500 $1,500
Euthanasia $50 $50 $50
AKC registration of litter (for a litter of 2, 5 or 10+) $29 $37 $45
TOTAL COST OF BREEDING $1,609 $3,002 $8,245

Now you’ve looked at the summary to get an idea of what dog breeding entails financially, here is a more detailed report on how much does it cost to be a dog breeder.

This is how much does it cost to run a kennel.

Maintenance of a single dog will on average costs $1,000 a year. The grand sum of yearly expenses due to being a professional breeder varies with the size of the kennel. The number of dogs and the requirements for dog housing can be a significant investment. Dog food, vet visits, annual license fees, cleaning supplies, stud service fees, fur and nail care, will always be in that expense column.

In addition, the cost of operating a large kennel will always include the overhead and maintenance of the building and the rent or mortgage on the property. At least initially, most commercial dog breeds breed from their own homes, and so rent/mortgage on any kennel property is not included in this analysis. Some home expenses may fall into the category of an expense for the business (e.g. home office) but these, too, are excluded.

The federal law on what is a commercial breeder is set out in the Animal Welfare Act. from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Animal Welfare Act. and its parent authority have jurisdiction to regulate commercial dog breeders. Any business with four or more breeding females must have a federal license.

A pre-license inspection of the kennel may result in additional cost of upgrades, etc. In addition, each individual state may have an animal act of its own that will add to the requirements and cost of keeping the business legal. These license requirements on the low end will cost $30 (just federal with no state fee) to $1,250 (maximum federal fee of $750 operating in Michigan.) The federal fee is expensed here on a single litter with the assumption that a professional breeder will have four bitches.

The cost of insurance was not included in this analysis because it is usually added into the property anyway. Some breeds (e.g. Pit bulls, American Bullies, Rottweilers) may increase the cost of property insurance, and rightfully should be expensed. Health insurance for dogs is a debatable needed expense and is, also, not included. A successful business will save additional cash for unexpected or catastrophic expenses (e.g. cancer treatment.)

Breeding-specific expenses are going to first include a stud fee — the stud fee is usually the cost of a single puppy from that breeding. Rarely is it more than that unless you are breeding your bitch to a popular sire. Some breeders will look for a stud that comes from championship bloodlines. The stud fee of a dog that just won Westminster’s Best in Show will run in the (tens of) thousands of dollars. The vast majority of breeders do not pay this kind of money.


Travel expenses to the stud or for the stud’s owner to the dam may make the cost so prohibitive that artificial insemination is a cheaper and better option. Fresh or frozen, the stud will cost on average $500. For some breeds like English Bulldogs, it may be double. Make sure you are drafting a clear stud-service contract that both parties agree on and get protected by.

Other expenses pre-puppy will include the bitch’s progesterone tests (a single one is $100) to determine her ovulation timeline and the best breeding time. Additionally, you’ll have to book an ultrasound or xray (depending on gestation date) to confirm the pregnancy. It goes without saying that during the pregnancy and the nursing, your female dog will require additional food or supplements. These additional expenses will average $200.

A test for Brucellosis, a contagious disease, should also be done prior to breeding. This testing averages $100. The stud should provide proof of testing before the stud agreement is signed.

Breeds that have many known health problems and genetic diseases should also obtain health clearances prior to breeding. The Orthopedic Foundation provides good information on this subject. This fee will include an examination by a vet for any hip issues, and a genetic test for eyes diseases, cardiac and deafness. The vet fee may be included as part of the regular exam, but generally requires a separate office visit for the purpose. Some vets will do the necessary paperwork to obtain the clearance without an additional charge.

The total in fees to OFA and vet runs to about $100. The genetic testing will cost $15 plus $7.50 for test of three genetic conditions (total cost $37.50.) This is a one time fee and can be expensed on a single litter or spread out over the cost of multiple litters of the bitch. The stud selected needs to have those clearances and documentation should be provided prior to accepting the stud.

Litter-related expenses include all the items paid for a particular litter of puppies. This is basically how much does it cost to breed a litter of puppies.

Whelping Box

A well-known and inevitable litter-related expense is the whelping box. This expense can be as cheap as a cardboard box around the house (i.e. free) to the most high quality purchased from a pet supply store or online (over $500.) The average whelping box should be built with a rail to protect the puppies from being crushed by the dam.

Some breeders build their own box, and the cost of those supplies runs around $150. The whelping box is a cost that will be used for this dam and maybe for others. In this article, it is expensed as a one and only litter. This kind of fixed expense can be depreciated over many years (as will the purchase price of any bitch bought for breeding purposes.)

Along with the whelping box you should have a comprehensive whelping kit ready a week or two before the litter’s due date. It should include everything you may need to assist the mother at delivery and over the following weeks to nurse the puppies.


The birth of the puppies does not usually involve extra expenses as long as the breed is not one that requires C-section births. C-section births are an additional vet surgical fee. Breeding one of the breeds that require a C-section will add a cost anywhere between $1000 to $4000 (for an English Bulldog.)

C-section births, otherwise, fall into that unexpected additional expense that is part of the business expense overall. It is not included in this analysis because it is usually not needed.

Mind that such emergencies don’t just sum themselves up to the price of the surgery alone. You must consider the surgery, as well as the observation, medication, anesthetic and overnight stay at the vet.


The arrival of the puppies brings another set of expenses. Puppies need to be dewormed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The deworming medicine costs on average $35 for a litter of six puppies of a medium size-large breed. Of course, bigger puppies and a larger litter will increase the need for the medicine and its cost (toy breeds may even get by with less.)

Similarly, at least two sets of puppy shots will be needed before going to their new homes. Many vets will have a standard charge for litters based on the number of puppies. In general, the first round of puppy shots at age six weeks will cost with vet check $200.


Miscellaneous Expenses

Other necessary expenses include such things as AKC registration of the litter ($25 plus $2 per puppy), supplies, and a bag of puppy food (total average $100). Some breeds require some puppy surgeries like dew claw removal, and this expense is not included here.

Also, surgeries like tail docking and ear cropping sometimes commonly seen in certain breeds are not a necessary expense and are excluded.

Unexpected Situations

Puppies that are unfortunately born with some severe health defect will incur special health expenses. A puppy with a severe defect or health problem may even have to be euthanized. A single euthanization costs on average $50.

Sometimes, even the most careful breeder that has all the genetic tests available done and has looked at the bloodlines of the stud for several generations may end up with a puppy with some obvious disqualifying characteristics. Most professional dog breeders are breeding to the standards. The goal is to continue the perfection of a breed. The question then becomes what to do with a puppy that has a genetic problem. It is usually good policy to offer this puppy for sale at a reduced price which may, in fact, mean taking a loss on that puppy.

A true professional breeder will, also, insist on an agreement with the buyer that the puppy will not be used for breeding purposes. The cost of neuter or spay is sometimes seen on the expense side of the professional dog breeder but seems more logically an expense for the buyer since the breeder has already reduced the price.

Sales & Marketing

Finally, a successful professional dog breeder will recognize all the expenses of the business and be scrupulous in documenting them. Common expenses that vary too much to be quantified here includes such things as advertising and mileage. Many professional breeders spend money on posting their puppies on advertising sites, etc.

The policies of free sites like Craigslist and Facebook prohibit the sale of animals. The popularity of the breed and the breeder’s desired cost may increase the need for and then the cost of advertising. A puppy advertised online may result in a potential buyer from a long distance away. The shipping of a puppy may already be built into the price of the puppy or be an additional cost to a breeder who wants the sale. Mileage to and from the vet should also be documented and treated as an expense of the business.

Please note that most breeders that are labeled “hobby breeders” do knowingly take a loss. A single one and only litter of puppies is a large expense and rarely profitable. A commercial dog breeder only becomes profitable when successfully breeding several female dogs over a period of several years.

In other words, the average commercial dog breeder only makes money by staying committed and working hard for many years. Building your reputation is vital and it means attending dog shows, keeping your social media and website updated, as well as being active in your dog breed’s community. That way, people will not just pay for the dog, but for your kennel name, too.

11 comments on “How Much Does It Cost To Be a Dog Breeder?”

  1. Shane Adderley

    You left out all the major expenses! Except of course emergancy csection! And I dont know where your getting the rest of your numbers either! I pay average of 65 $ / pup just for first shots and first worming next round of wormer at 8 weeks is ten dollars per pup! And worming at two for and six weeks is for idiots that dont know any better! The life cycle of round wirms doesnt start until the puppy starts on solid food and requires at least two weeks for the worms to reach a vulnerable stage and position in the digestive tract! Pouring poison into the puppies is not doing any good if the worms arent hatched and in a position along the digestive tract where it can reach them .some knowlege of the biology of nematodes should by passed along to the public! Instead of these fear mongering practices of these money grubbing vets! All theyre doing is building resistance in these parasites! Shame on them and on you for promoting such hog wash! Ultrasound on pregnant female 146 $ xrays 156 $ and that cheap! Welping box 80 $ whelping pen 240 $these are for workable items that will survive the experience! So they can be reuse at least twice! Stud fees start at at least five hundred for a nobody stud any dog of merit you will be paying 1500 $ for semen for ai program. Nobody is going to put their stud at risk for brucelluis for any old bitch.

    I dont know who these vets are giving you these numbers or what stores you where buying your food at but a raw diet supplemented with all the kibble 14 puppies could eat was costing me 350 $ a week at eight wks old plus you missed the boggest expenses of all housing! I have to live out of town to run my kennel as having five dogs contravines munocipal by laws. Put that in perspective cause it just put everything else with additional travel expenses. Fencing training caring showing advertising telecomunications travel expenses insurance dog crates etc it goes on and on the real cost is measured in hours and return on investments .proceeds from sale of puppies -expenses/350 hrs if your looking at anything over 5 $you made nothing you can live on! I’m at 18.50 $ and ive worked my fucking ass off for fifteen yrs to get there but the real secret to my sucess is selling trained dog for specific activities that my dog have provrn capable! Ie service dogs and esa animals that are tailored for specific clients .on top of what we do with the herding aspect of our training we are moving towards service animals .as farmers want to haggle over price! A pwd will gladly pay for something thats going to make their life easier and the get the added bonus of having a great pet! Its win win on that side of the fence! Two dogs a yr almost pays my mortagage for the year!

    1. LuckysLegacy

      If you have no grasp of the English language – spelling, grammar, etc – how is anyone going to give your comment any credence? It appears to be written by a child who swears.
      I appreciate your (what I’m sure you think is helpful) input, but I, and probably every one else, will disregard it because of the way it was written.

  2. Silverstein

    Shane, you lose all credibility when you are incompetent at typing a comment.

  3. Abby

    I found this article extremely insightful. I now have a much better idea of all of the resources required to breeding dogs. Thank you!

  4. Mac

    I appreciate this article for it’s honesty. People are out there charging way to much for pups and claiming they aren’t making a profit at $1,500.00/pup. When I know for a fact that they are.
    Shane I don’t know where you live or if English is even your first language. All I know is your post is ridiculous.

    1. LuckysLegacy

      Our pups are $1,500 a piece and I have yet to make any profit. Anything we bring in goes right back out to dog/kennel expenses. 2 litters a year, approx 8 pups a litter. If you add in the expense of my time, let’s say only $10/hour, which I didn’t in my calculations, that is over $12,000 per litter, which in itself sucks up the income.
      So definitely not in it for the money.

  5. TC

    Mac, This article only covers the items that have a dollar amount, you have not taken into account the amount of work , in hours and days, 24/7, that it takes to care for any living thing. Both children and animals, take a lot of time, that does not translate to an hourly wage. Another example, When you go to work for someone, you have to spend time getting ready for work, travel, food, hair cut, health care, etc. and, you only get paid when you clock into work. Some jobs expect you to be a reflection of the company, 24/7. Which means that you are “on the clock” “at work” without pay.

  6. Oreo

    I just had my first litter With the breeder i bought my dog from, and since i am just learning the ropes, I agreed to these terms….her contract for me was to give her 2 pups, one for her and one for the Stud’s owner (they are both local and both with known kennel names) on top of what I would typically pay for a champion bred “top of the line” dog of her breed. We had my dog mated with one of her champion stud dogs, no fee to me. For every litter, she will take care of everything, from the actual birthing (she had me drop off my dog few days before the due date), entire whelping and until pups get weaned off from their mom, which she says is about 6-8 weeks. I only pay for the vet expenses and shots. In return, I get one dog and 20% of the sales. The pups will all sell under her kennel name since she can charge top dollar. Does that sound reasonable?

    1. Katie

      The stud fee you’re being charged is standard, but I wouldn’t go along with your breeders deal unless you know for a fact that she can earn more than the cost of a puppy and 80% of your sales. So, if I understand, your dog has 5 puppies that she sells for $1000 each (using round numbers that are easy to work with). One is given to the stud and you get a puppy, and she gets a puppy. So she sells 2 dogs at $1000 each and you receive $400. You have 1 puppy and $400 from that deal. Let’s say you can only get half for your dog because her name isn’t attached (and honestly, the parents health and background is important, not her name). So you sell that dog for $500 and you have earned $900 (minus the vet expenses that she got you to pay for). She’s earned $1600 and she has a puppy to sell or use as a breeder. Let’s say she sells it. She’s now earned $2600 for babysitting your dog for 2 months, with no out of pocket expense other than food. If you instead did a little reading about dog breeding, you could learn how to care for your dog and her pups. Now you have 4 dogs, and even if you only get half of what she can charge, you’ve made $2000 instead of $900. You’ll have some expenses, but not $1100 worth (unless there’s a health problem that you’d have to pay for anyway). So, with my math, you would earn almost double after you pay for the whelping box and dog food even if you could only get half of what your breeder can sell them for. Talk to your vet, read as much as you can, and visit the AKC website. A couple of days of research will teach you everything you need to know. Your breeder is a con artist and I hope you got a medical report on your puppy and her parents before buying. You still need to have her tested for flaws at 2 or 3 years old to make sure she’s even a good candidate for breeding. Without these tests there’s a better than average chance that you’ll be selling unhealthy dogs that will not have a good life, a long life, and will cost their new owners a fortune down the line, while breaking their hearts.

      1. Esther

        Katie, thank you so much for this positive and informative post. I am purchasing a very important and proven 6 year old stud, and paying a huge price accordingly, only because I literally bonded with him at first sight. He was the closest to a prior dog that came to me by accident, and whom I loved more than any other of my pets. My heart overruled my head when it came to this dog. So it occured to me that, as I am a retired 75 year old woman who loves new challenges, I might acquire a similarly pedigreed (though younger) female and let them mate. If there are puppies that would be thrilling. There is no way that I can recoup what I spent on my gentleman so I am trusting that I will be compensated mostly in the joy of it all. You make it sound so doable! The big deal will be setting up and maintaining an appropriate space in my very open 4 storey house. You’ve given me the impetus for doing the research. Thanks again.

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