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Meaning of F1, F1b, F2, F2b & F3 In Hybrid Dog Breeds

↯ Key takeaway points

  • Crossbred dogs and designer dogs are categorized into different generations, such as F1, F2, F3, F1b, or F2b.
  • F1 generation dogs are the offspring of two purebred dogs, with each parent being 50% of their respective breeds.
  • F1b generation dogs are the result of mating an F1 parent with a purebred parent, where the F1 parent contributes 75% of its breed and the purebred parent contributes 25% of its breed.
  • F2 generation dogs are the result of mating two F1 hybrid dogs.
  • F3 generation dogs are the offspring of two F2 hybrid parents.
Breeding Business is passionate about all sorts of domesticated pets. They have written dozens of articles across the web.
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Published on
Saturday 26 September 2015
Last updated on
Friday 13 October 2023
Meaning of F1, F1b, F2, F3... in crossbred dogs.
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Crossbred dogs and designer dogs are often referred to as F1, F2, or F3, or even F1b or F2b.

It is just the accepted nomenclature in which we can distinguish hybrid dog breeds between the different generations. This naming standard in here applies for dogs, designer dog breeds, hybrids, and mixes, but it is also commonly (and scientifically) applied to cats, cattle, plants, and most living organisms (even cells.)

P Generation

100% Purebred Dog

These dogs are the fruits of true breeding, meaning they are purebreds and belong to a specific dog breed.

Example: a Labrador, a Poodle, etc.

true breeding chart
Chart of purebred dogs (c)

F1 Generation

50% Purebred-A
50% Purebred-B

These dogs are the result of the breeding of two purebred dogs. Half of each dog is the mother’s breed, and the other half is the father’s breed.

Example: a Labradoodle whose mother is a purebred Labrador and father a purebred Poodle.

F1 hybrid
Chart of an F1 hybrid dog (c)

F1b Generation

75% Purebred-A
25% Purebred-B

These are F1 backcrossed dogs. They result from the mating of an F1 parent and a P parent. This is used to intensify traits found in the P parent’s breed.

Example: a Labradoodle whose mother is a Labradoodle and father a Poodle.

f1backbred f1b hybrid dog
Chart of an F1b hybrid dog (c)

F2 Generation

50% Purebred-A
50% Purebred-B

F2 dogs are the offsets resulting from the mating of two F1 hybrids.

Example: a Labradoodle whose mother is a Labradoodle F1 and father a Labradoodle F1.

f2 designer dog
Chart of an F2 hybrid dog (c)

F2b Generation

75% Purebred-A
25% Purebred-B

These are second-generation backcrossed dogs. Each F2b dog is the offset of an F1 parent and an F1 backcrossed (F1b) parent.

Example: a Labradoodle whose mother is a Labradoodle F1 and father a Labradoodle F1b.

f2b hybrid backbred dog
Chart of an F2b hybrid dog (c)

F3 Generation

50% Purebred-A
50% Purebred-B

Offsets coming from the mating of two F2 hybrid parents.

Example: a Labradoodle whose mother is a Labradoodle F2 and father a Labradoodle F2.

f3 hybrid dog
Chart of an F3 hybrid dog (c)

Multi Generation

An F3 or higher-generation hybrid dog crossed with an F3 or higher-generation hybrid dog. This is a more generic nomenclature and is mostly expressed using the generation of each parent, such as F4 Labradoodle x F2 Cockapoo.

Example: a Labradoodle whose mother is a Labradoodle F3 and father a Labradoodle F5.

65 comments on “Meaning of F1, F1b, F2, F2b & F3 In Hybrid Dog Breeds”

  1. carol

    what is the definition of two F1b’s mating? Is it desirable?

    1. An F1b x F1b breeding is a multi-generation and thus has to be precised since multi-gen is vague in itself.

    2. LUCY

      what would 2 F1B golden doodles produce?
      Mother and father both F1B golden doodles.

  2. Sharon

    Where does a Bernedoodle fall in this? Bermese Mountain Dog (mom–P) bred to Labradoodle (dad–F1)

    1. It is an F1b — look at the article’s chart for F1b and this is exactly that. One parent is purebred while the other parent is F1 (child of two different purebred P.)

    2. Anne

      They will produce “bernelabradoodles”, 50%berne, 25%lab, 25%poodle

  3. Melissa Flournoy

    If I breed and F1b and F2b together what would the puppies look like and what would you call them.

    1. jim

      cross breed unless you are a snob

      1. Karen

        I have a 7th generation Australian Service Dog So practically a thorough bred (now that is snobbish 😉)

  4. Adam Leavey

    I have a Cockapoo F1B (mother F1 Cockapoo and father pedigree poodle): I want to bred her with a pedigree cocker spaniel so the pups will have a stronger spaniel gene, but what would the pups be classified as? Cockapoo “F2”?

    1. The puppies in the litter will be multi-generation cockapoos. If you want to show the emphasize, use Cockapoos (F1bxF2)

    2. Anne

      assuming the mom is 75% poodle, the puppies will be 50/50 and third generation so puppies are F3

  5. Sherry Olar

    I want to breed my Miniature F1b Goldendoodle with with a pure breed Miniature Poodle. What woul the puppies be called?

    1. Still an F1b since you breed back with a purebred.

      1. Sharon Kurtz

        I want to breed my pure bred standard poodle to a Fl-B sheepdoodle. What would these puppies be called?

  6. Samantha

    Please can you tell me what the puppies of f3b labradoodle crossed with poodle will be?

    1. A F3b since it is backbred again with a purebred poodle.

    1. Mike

      My puppy came from both f1b goldendoodle parents. What is he considered?

  7. Dot

    I have F2 puppies- goldendoodles, they are beautiful! When you enter F2 another article comes up showing a golden retriever, all the F2 doodles I’ve seen look like golden doodles f1s, why the golden retriever pic in place of the F2S, I’m guessing they are promoting their F2 bs as they are evening down playing the f1 golden doodles, your thoughts on this?

    1. Hard to say without knowing the other article’s writer’s intent and knowledge. But because these nomenclatures are exactly for dogs who are not purebred (ie. not in a registry), it’s very easy after F1 to just make stuff up to suit one’s needs.

  8. Joanna Tequida

    Some ads i have seen for puppies have an “M” classification rather than the “F”. Is that the same thing or does it mean something else?
    Thank you

  9. Tracy

    If you have an f3 labradoodle , but you mate back to a Labrador , would that make puppies f2 a?

  10. Jayne Poole

    I have an F1b labradoodle and mating her with an F1bb labradoodle. Would this produce a curly coat in the puppies and would it make the pups an f2 or f3. My girl is very curly so didnt want to breed her back to a pedigree poodle.thanks ?

  11. Tracy J

    I have an f1 mini goldendoodle male and a f2 mini goldendoodle that had a litter of puppies. So what are the puppies?

    1. This is an instance of a multi-generation litter of puppies.

  12. Jinty

    What generation would the puppies be of a F2 labradoodle with a pure bred poodle? I can’t see any examples of this.

    1. Peggie

      I have the same issue. Any reply’s?

    2. Anne

      The percentage would be the same as F2b so I would call them F3b

  13. When hybrids are purchased from a breeder are papers issued stating their blood line? And are they registered anywhere?

    1. Hybrids rarely have papers since they are not purebred dogs. They may be registered with special/new registries, though, so it’s indeed possible but rare. The bloodline is just the affix of the kennel in most situations.

  14. Morgan

    I have a (F2) golden doodle male and I’m breeding him to a female (P)standard poodle. I do not see a classification on the chart above for what the puppies will be.

    1. Anne


  15. liz

    hello, i am expecting a new goldendoodle puppy and the parents are english petite multigen and f1b, what will the puppies be?

  16. Ivy

    Hello. I have a cavaschon with her papers, I didn’t register her, cuz I got her by default, owner couldn’t give her enough attention due to ending up having to go through chemo) she is 1&1/2 yrs old and I absolutely love her. I had no intentions of breeding her, since technically she’s a hibred to begin with, if I where to breed her, which pair would produce the heathies puppy? Bichon Frises or Cavalier King Charles Spaniels or another cavaschon?

  17. Andrea

    Question: Does it make any difference whether a dog/puppy is F1, F2 or multigenerational? Is it better to have F1? Will the temperament be any different, or the general health? So confused!

    1. Joel

      Example breed a poodle and a Golden: F1 is the only way to know you have a 50/50 mix. Anything else can theoretically be a combination of 100% to 0% poodle to 100% to 0% Golden mix. Example 60/40, 40/60, 99/1, 2/98, etc. Another example, a scientist breed poodles and wolves. The F1 were a perfect mix of poodle and wolf (and bizarre looking). But when he breed the F1 to the F1, some of the puppies looked like wolves, some looked like poodles, some looked like a mix. But that is just the phenotype genes (the genes that express what we ‘see’). Underneath, the genotype, the puppies that look poodle could still be 40% or more wolf. In aggression, brain function, immune system, etc. And vice versa, the wolf looking puppies could be genotypically more poodle than wolf. But then the wolf looking puppies could be 80% wolf just like they look. You can’t know. Only the F1 is 50/50. Everything else is a crap shoot.

  18. Bianca

    Andrea I came to this page wanting to find the answer to the same question you have. Someone Please????

    1. Joel

      When you breed two full breed dogs, you always get 50% of both. Think of it as each parent is represented by 100 marbles (it’s not that simple but is just an example). Let’s say the lab is red marbles and the poodle is blue marbles. All the F1 puppies will get 50 “marbles” from each parent to equal 100 (50 red and 50 blue). Now for our example, when you put all those 50 red marbles and 50 blue marbles in a jar, theoretically, when you breed the F1 with another F1, you can get anything from a pure lab to a pure poodle. Because each F1 is made up of 50 red marbles and 50 blue marbles, the F1 gives 50% of it’s genetics to the F2. That means, theoretically, ALL 50 marbles could be blue or ALL 50 marbles could be red. But usually you get a mix of red marbles and blue marbles. The best way to imagine it is to reach blind folded into a jar of 50 red marbles and 50 blue marbles and take out 50 marbles. Then do it again with another jar of 50 red and 50 blue marbles. What are your 100 marbles? You might have 75 red and 25 blue. You might have 48 red and 52 blue. You might have 1 red and 99 blue.

      1. Jamie williams

        Hi I’m wondering the out come of a f2 x pure breed ?

  19. Roger

    What is the offspring when an F1B labradoodle is bred with full blooded chocolate lab.

  20. Gary Miller

    I have a F1B Golden doodle black and white in color. He was produced by breeding a pure bred poodle with a F! Golden doodle. We would like to find someone with a female F1 Golden doodle. Since our dog would be theoretically 75 % poodle and 25% golden , what percentage of golden and poodle would the puppies be?

  21. Lexi

    What is the offspring of an F2 Goldendoodle x F2b Cavoodle?

  22. How many times do I need to Breed an F1 or F1B dog to a P ( purebred ) until I can consider the generation litter pure bred again example ; F1B Rottweiler/German Shepherd cross back to P ( Purebred Rottweiler) ?

  23. Michelle Styles

    What puppies would a miniature F2 labradoodle mum and maltipoo dad make?

  24. Ginger Kowski

    What is a miniature F1B reverse? Emphasis on the reverse? Thanks.

  25. Sindy

    What is s labradoodle bred with a Labrador?

    1. Hello, it would be a Labradoodle F1b (or F2b, etc). The letter ‘b’ means backbred.

  26. Amanda

    Hi. I am wondering what the genetic pool might look like for crossing our F4 or F4B with a purebred golden retriever. Both the F4 and F4B males have strong standard poodle stature, about 35 lbs at maturity, soft and not wirey coats. My concern is that I don’t want to lose the hypoallergenic benefits; however the female golden retriever in question had a beautiful coat and temperament. What label would the pups be?
    Thank you for any recommendations.

  27. Amanda

    I should have maybe mentioned also that both the F4 and F4b goldendoodle males very much look like poodle. He very much resembles our old standard poodle that we had years ago, only smaller (35 lb as opposed to 55).
    I’m curious also how coat color plays out in genetics… Our males are a beautiful maltese black with white blaze in their chests. The goldens have soft, wispy, light coats.
    Thank you

  28. Christy

    Can a first generation Aussiedoodle be bread with a Goldendoodle?

  29. Johanna

    Can anyone please tell me what F stands for?

    1. Raina

      It means “First”, as in First Generation.

  30. Raina

    Newfiedoodle Reverse F1b where the Newfoundland is the b, bread back to a poodle. Would this be an F1bb?

  31. William

    Littermates inherit different breed percentages. It is not 50/50. Breeds are inherited just like any other gene, so different puppies from the same litter will have different proportions of the parents breed that they passed down.

  32. kelly

    if I have an f1 bred to P labrador so an F1b and then an f1 bred to the poodle P, F1b the other way. I breed both the F1b’s together will it bring them back to an F1 and is that desirable?

  33. stephanie

    So what would an f1 x f2 be?
    Still f2?
    The mother is f2 from a f1 x multi generational
    And the father is a f1.

  34. Gail Vitasovic

    I have a f1 shoodle girl , dad was mini toy poodle , mum was a shitzu , if I breed with her to a caboodle same size as my girl, what will the puppies be called ?

  35. Sally-Ann

    From reading all these questions I am still a little confused but think I just need some clarification. I have a multi-generational bitch and we bred her with an F1 male – so are the pups multi-generational still ??

  36. Lloyd

    I have a F1b Whoodle female, and breeding to a pure Poodle. What would the puppies be.

  37. KD McMains

    I have an F1b Aussiedoodle. I would like to keep the 25 Australian Shepard and 75 poodle. What would I need to breed her to for this? Her eyes are ice blue, well 1 is partial due to the Aussie trait.
    I will be looking for a stud who also is capable of throwing blues. Her parents normally threw a great mix of blues and will be looking for this possible trait when searching for a stud in 8 months with the complete DHA testing.

  38. Gabby Bellamy

    Hi, I really hope you can help, I have a cavapoochon named Crumble so a tri-breed to start with, both parents are F1s and their parents were purebreds.
    Crumbles Mum is a Cavapoo her parents are a King Charles Cavalier and a Toy Poodle.
    Crumbles Dad is a Cavachon his parents are a Bichon Frise and a King Charles Cavalier
    This makes me think Crumble is an F2. Now we’ve recently bred her with an F1 Cavapoo, what classification will her puppies be please? TIA

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